Phenethylamines refer to a class of substances with documented psychoactive and stimulant effects and include amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA, all of which are controlled under the Convention. Bromo-Dragonfly, 2C-B-Fly and others e.
A number of studies have reported the synthesis of some phenethylamines and amphetamine substitutes. In the s and s, Alexander Shulgin, a biochemist and pharmacologist, reported the synthesis of numerous new psychoactive compounds. Simple variations on the mescaline molecule a natural phenylethylamine led to the synthesis of powerful hallucinogenic substances, e.
Over two decades later, a new generation of phenethylamines was researched by Professor David Nichols and his research team at Purdue University in the United States. The team found the potency of synthetic analogues of mescaline such as 2C-B and DOB, to exceed that of many naturally occurring hallucinogens.
Bromo-Dragonfly is the most common and potent substance in this sub-group. Some phenethylamine derivatives are controlled in some countries. Ingestion is the most common route of administration of phenethylamines.
Most phenethylamines act as either central nervous system stimulantsor as hallucinogens. Classic hallucinogens psychedelics mediate specific serotonin-receptor activities and produce hallucinations. PMA, PMMA and 4-methylthioamfetamine have been more often associated with incidental deaths than other phenethylamines.
PMA and PMMA are known to have a particularly high toxicity but there is no data available on fatalities associated with their use. Clinical observations. Clinical observations have reported severe hyperthermia following the use of these substances. References  Hill, SL.Naturally occurring phenethylamines are organic compounds which may be thought of as being derived from phenethylamine itself that are found in living organisms.
Tyramine is a phenethylamine that occurs widely in plants  and animalsand is metabolized by various enzymesincluding monoamine oxidases. Substituted phenethylamines like mescaline and lophophine are found in psychoactive cactus. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: list of naturally occurring tryptamines.
Serotonin receptor modulators. Antagonists: Atypical antipsychotics e. Antagonists: AR-A Beta blockers e. Agonists: BRL Ergolines e. Antagonists: Metitepine methiothepin. Antagonists: Mianserin Metitepine methiothepin.
Agonists: 4-Methylaminorex Aminorex Amphetamines e. Antagonists: Agomelatine Atypical antipsychotics e. Agonists: 2Cs e. Antagonists: Adatanserin Agomelatine Atypical antipsychotics e. Agonists: Alcohols e. Agonists: Ergolines e. Antagonists: ABT Atypical antipsychotics e.
And it is no wonder; each of these conditions is known to be associated with low levels of PEA. Most prescription medications used to treat these core conditions do not address low PEA. That is why they frequently fail work, cause troublesome side effects, or both. Phenylethylamine PEA is a hormone-like substance that occurs naturally in your brain and body. It functions as a neurotransmitter that gives you heightened focus, attention, goal-directed behavior, and task-completion.
Combined with its mood elevating effects, these attributes are why supplementation with PEA can bring about increased get-up-and-go, enhanced sense of well-being, and optimal cognitive performance.
Moreover, PEA amplifies the actions of other key brain chemicals — serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine.
As such, PEA is thought to slow down the rate at which your brain and body age, extend health span, and increase longevity. Proper supplementation with PEA is designed to provide rapid improvements on mental clarity, mood, stamina, energy, libido, joy, and motivation.
Often the clinical picture indicates who is suffering from too much PEA versus too little. Diagnostic accuracy is greater improved, however, by measuring levels of PEA in the urine. Please see our page on Neurotransmitter Screening for details.
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What affects the body affects your brain. Log In Sign Up. About Us Our functional medicine approach involves identifying core imbalances which affect the brain and body network. Stay Connected. Stay Connected:.Phenethylamine 1- amino phenyl ethane is a monoamine compound. Substitutions to the phenethylamine molecule give rise to a group of compounds collectively known as substituted phenethylamines or phenethylamines.
The following pages are in this category, out of total. This list may not reflect recent changes learn more. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phenethylamines. The main articles for this category are Phenethylamine and Substituted phenethylamine. Subcategories This category has the following 9 subcategories, out of 9 total. Pages in category "Phenethylamines" The following pages are in this category, out of total.
Phenethylamine Substituted phenethylamine. C Cericlamine Ciclafrine Cutamesine. E E Evenamide. F Fenspiride Fludorex. G Gallopamil. H Hexapradol Homarylamine. I Ibopamine 3-Iodothyronamine. J Jimscaline. L Lefetamine Levomilnacipran Lisdexamfetamine List of naturally occurring phenethylamines Lophophine.
N Narceine Norfenefrine Normetanephrine. O Obocell Octopamine Oxyfedrine. R RU V Varacin Venlafaxine. Z Zylofuramine. Categories : Alkylamines Chemical classes of psychoactive drugs Phenyl compounds. Hidden categories: Commons category link from Wikidata Set categories. Namespaces Category Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.
Topics about [substituted] phenethylamines in general should be placed in relevant topic categories.Their formulas are stable, they show up on any drug test, the symptoms of use are very well known. Doctors may not be able to test for these drugs if someone winds up in the emergency room, symptoms of overdose may not be recognized and the users themselves may be completely unaware of what hazards exist when they snort that powder or ingest that pill.
While this may work for the chemist and the dealer, it is endlessly dangerous for the user. This is definitely the case with phenethylamines. This is class of drug with hallucinogenic, physical, mental and emotional effects.
Their nature as strong stimulants means that they will increase heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure. Body temperature will go up and the person may become dehydrated if they do not take care to drink enough water. MDMA or Ecstasy is a well-known drug in this class of phenethylamines. It is popular at dance venues and music festivals as it gives one a feeling of artificial closeness to other people. Colors may be brighter, music and lighting may have a more profound effect, which is why it is used at nightclubs and why some venues hand out light sticks and synchronize their light shows to the music.
But when too much of this drug is taken, a person can overheat, suffer paranoia or panic attacks, run high fevers and die from organ failure. These drugs may be sold as loose powders, capsules or tablets or they may be sold as blotter paper squares impregnated with the drug. Some drug dealers may make the false claim that they are selling Ecstasy.
The effects of these drugs may be slow to arrive, prompting a user to take more, which can result in an intentionally high dose being received. More dangerous adverse effects can be expected at higher dosages. Effects of these drugs may last eight to twelve hours. One of the more dangerous effects of this type of drug is that the muscle rigidity it causes can actually be life-threatening.
Muscles may go so rigid that they cannot uncontract. This list of drugs is far from stable. Reports of deaths resulting from a new derivative of 2C-I have just surfaced in Perth, Australia. This new drug is referred to as 25b-Nbome. He has been credited with popularizing the use of these drugs and many others, including mescaline. His publications contain detailed chemical descriptions of these drugs and have been reported to be present in clandestine labs that were raided by law enforcement.
Drug Information Other Drugs. Sign up free to receive our email newsletter: Email. Ron Hubbard. Language: English US. All Rights Reserved. Narconon and the Narconon logo are trademarks and service marks owned by the Association for Better Living and Education International and are used with its permission.Chemically similar to amphetamine, phenylethylamine is a mild alkaloid stimulant produced naturally in your body as a byproduct of the amino acid phenylalanine.
A handful of foods made from cocoa beans contain phenylethylamine, or PEA. If, however, you prefer not to gorge yourself with chocolate, you can help boost levels of PEA in your body by consuming foods rich in phenylalanine. PEA is also available in supplement form. Consult your doctor before self-treating with PEA. In "Nutrition for Dummies," author Carol Ann Rinzler observes that your body naturally releases PEA when you're in love, which helps to account for that feeling of good all over.
Although chocolate has been a favorite of lovers for centuries, it was not until the late s that scientists discovered that the tasty treat was a rich source of PEA, which Rinzler suggests may help to explain its longtime popularity. In the interest of full disclosure, she points out that chocolate's high content of the stimulants caffeine and theobromine and the cannabinoid anandamide might also be contributors to chocolate's almost universal appeal.
High-protein plant foods are the richest source of phenylalanine, the raw ingredient from which the body makes phenylethylamine. Raw soybeans contain 1, milligrams of phenylalanine per grams, according to DietaryFiberFood. Other foods in this category -- and their phenylalanine content per grams -- include raw cowpeas, 1, milligrams; raw lentils, 1, milligrams; raw peanuts, 1, milligrams; almonds, 1, milligrams; raw chickpeas, 1, milligrams; raw flaxseed, milligrams; tahini, made from stone-ground sesame seeds, milligrams; and English walnuts, milligrams.
Several foods in the meat, seafood and poultry category contain high levels of phenylalanine, the chemical precursor to phenylethylamine. At the top of the list is Italian salami, made with pork, which has milligrams of phenylalanine per grams, according to DietaryFiberFood.
Also rich in the amino acid are raw top round beef, lean and fat, with milligrams of phenylalanine per grams; raw top sirloin, lean only, milligrams; raw shrimp, milligrams; raw chicken thighs, meat only, milligrams; raw pink salmon, milligrams; raw chicken wings, meat and skin, milligrams; raw Italian pork sausage, milligrams; and raw fresh pork, milligrams.
Dairy products, including eggs, also have significant levels of phenylalanine, according to DietaryFiberFood. The richest source in this category is raw egg white, which has milligrams of the amino acid per grams. Other foods in this category include raw whole egg, milligrams; raw egg yolk, milligrams; sheep's milk, milligrams; goat's milk, milligrams; soy milk, milligrams; whole milk, 3. Nutrition Nutrition Basics Food and Health. Don Amerman. Don Amerman has spent his entire professional career in the editorial field.
For many years he was an editor and writer for The Journal of Commerce. Chocolate and other cocoa-based foods contain phenylethylamine.
Chemistry for Pharmacy Students; S. Sarker, et al. Share this article.Phenethylamine [note 1] PEA is an organic compoundnatural monoamine alkaloidand trace aminewhich acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans. In the brain, phenethylamine regulates monoamine neurotransmission by binding to trace amine-associated receptor 1 TAAR1 and inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter 2 VMAT2 in monoamine neurons ;    to a lesser extent, it also acts as a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system.
Phenethylamine is sold as a dietary supplement for purported mood and weight loss -related therapeutic benefits ; however, in orally ingested phenethylamine, a significant amount is metabolized in the small intestine by monoamine oxidase B MAO-B and then aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDHwhich convert it to phenylacetic acid.
Phenethylamines, or more properly, substituted phenethylaminesare the group of phenethylamine derivatives that contain phenethylamine as a "backbone"; in other words, this chemical class includes derivative compounds that are formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.
Phenethylamine is produced by a wide range of species throughout the plant and animal kingdoms, including humans;   it is also produced by certain fungi and bacteria genera: LactobacillusClostridiumPseudomonas and the family Enterobacteriaceae and acts as a potent antimicrobial against certain pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli e. Phenethylamine is a primary amine, the amino-group being attached to a benzene ring through a two-carbon, or ethyl group.
Substituted phenethylamines are a chemical class of organic compounds based upon the phenethylamine structure; [note 2] the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substitutingone or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents. Many substituted phenethylamines are psychoactive drugs, which belong to a variety of different drug classes, including central nervous system stimulants e.
Many of these psychoactive compounds exert their pharmacological effects primarily by modulating monoamine neurotransmitter systems; however, there is no mechanism of action or biological target that is common to all members of this subclass. Numerous endogenous compounds — including hormonesmonoamine neurotransmitters, and many trace amines e.
Several notable recreational drugs, such as MDMA ecstasymethamphetamineand cathinonesare also members of the class. All of the substituted amphetamines are phenethylamines, as well. Pharmaceutical drugs that are substituted phenethylamines include phenelzinephenforminand fanetizoleamong many others.
Robinson and H. Alternative syntheses are outlined in the footnotes to this preparation. Nystrom and W. Brown in Phenethylamine can also be produced via the cathodic reduction of benzyl cyanide in a divided cell. Assembling phenethylamine structures for synthesis of compounds such as epinephrine, amphetamines, tyrosine, and dopamine by adding the beta-aminoethyl side chain to the phenyl ring is possible.
This can be done via Friedel-Crafts acylation with N-protected acyl chlorides when the arene is activated, or by Heck reaction of the phenyl with N-vinyl oxazolonefollowed by hydrogenationor by cross-coupling with beta-amino organozinc reagents, or reacting a brominated arene with beta-aminoethyl organolithium reagents, or by Suzuki cross-coupling. Reviews that cover attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and phenethylamine indicate that several studies have found abnormally low urinary phenethylamine concentrations in ADHD individuals when compared with controls.
Skydiving induces a marked increase in urinary phenethylamine concentrations. Thirty minutes of moderate- to high-intensity physical exercise has been shown to induce an increase in urinary phenylacetic acidthe primary metabolite of phenethylamine. Brain levels of endogenous trace amines are several hundred-fold below those for the classical neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin, but their rates of synthesis are equivalent to those of noradrenaline and dopamine and they have a very rapid turnover rate.
These low concentrations arise because of their very short half-life. Because of the pharmacological relationship between phenethylamine and amphetamine, the original paper and both reviews suggest that phenethylamine plays a prominent role in mediating the mood-enhancing euphoric effects of a runner's highas both phenethylamine and amphetamine are potent euphoriants.
Phenethylamine, being similar to amphetamine in its action at their common biomolecular targetsreleases norepinephrine and dopamine. Phenethylamine has been shown to bind to human trace amine-associated receptor 1 hTAAR1 as an agonist. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with 1-phenylethylamine. IUPAC name. Interactive image. Main article: Substituted phenethylamine.